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Inflation, Unemployment, and Inequality: India’s Achilles’ Heels in 2023-24


In this article, we’ll examine the current state of the Indian economy and its Achilles’ heels: inflation, unemployment, and inequality; discuss the challenges and opportunities it faces; and assess the government’s policies to address these challenges.

The Indian economy is the sixth-largest in the world by nominal GDP and the third-largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). It is a rapidly developing economy with a young and growing population. India’s GDP growth rate has averaged over 7% per year over the past decade.

The Indian economy has shown resilience in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, which caused a sharp contraction in GDP growth in 2020. The economy rebounded strongly in 2021, with GDP growth of 8.7%. However, the growth momentum slowed in 2022, with GDP growth of 7.0%.


Positive Factors

Rapid economic growth

As mentioned above, India is currently experiencing rapid economic growth. The Indian economy is expected to grow at 7.4% in 2023-24, according to the World Bank. This is a significant rebound from the 6.6% contraction in 2020-21. The growth is being driven by a strong recovery in domestic consumption and investment. This is due to a number of factors, including a young and growing workforce, increasing investment, and rising domestic consumption.

Strong manufacturing sector

India’s manufacturing sector is growing rapidly, and the country is now a major exporter of goods such as automobiles, pharmaceuticals, and electronics. This, in turn, is helping to drive economic growth and create jobs.

Growing digital economy

India has one of the fastest-growing digital economies in the world. This is due to the increasing penetration of smartphones and the internet and the government’s focus on promoting digitalization. The growth of the digital economy is creating new opportunities for businesses and individuals.

Despite these challenges, the Indian economy is expected to continue to grow in the coming years. The IMF has forecast GDP growth of 7.4% in 2023 and 7.6% in 2024.

Negative Factors

High inflation

India’s inflation rate has been rising in recent months and is currently at a 7-year high. In August 2023, inflation rose to 7.01%, the highest level in eight years. This is due to several factors, including rising food and fuel prices and supply chain disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. High inflation is eroding the purchasing power of households and businesses, and it is also making it difficult for the government to control its finances.

Rising unemployment

According to the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE), India’s unemployment rate rose to 8.3% in June 2023 and has also been rising in recent months. This is attributable to a number of factors, including the deceleration of economic growth and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. High unemployment is a major challenge for the Indian government, as it is leading to social unrest and political instability.

Widening inequality

Inequality in India has been widening in recent years. This is due to a number of factors, including the concentration of wealth in the hands of a few individuals and families and the lack of access to quality education and healthcare for the poor. Widening inequality is a major threat to India’s social and economic development.

Weaker external demand

The global economy is slowing down, which could hurt India’s exports.

Trade Deficit

India’s trade deficit widened to $25.6 billion in June 2023, up from $24.2 billion in the previous month. This is due to a sharp increase in imports, particularly in energy and electronics. The widening trade deficit is putting pressure on the Indian rupee and could lead to higher inflation.

Government Initiatives

The Indian government is taking a number of steps to address the challenges facing the economy. These include:

Monetary policy tightening

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has been raising interest rates in an effort to control inflation. This is making it more expensive for businesses to borrow money, which could slow economic growth. However, the RBI is hoping that this will help to bring inflation under control.

Fiscal policy consolidation

The government is also taking steps to reduce its fiscal deficit. This is being done through a combination of spending cuts and revenue increases. Fiscal consolidation is necessary to reduce the government’s debt burden and make it more sustainable.

Structural reforms

The government is also implementing a number of structural reforms in an effort to boost economic growth and create jobs. These reforms include simplifying labor laws, improving infrastructure, and easing regulations for businesses.

Investing in infrastructure

The government is investing heavily in infrastructure, such as roads, railways, and airports. This is expected to create jobs and boost economic activity.

Promoting manufacturing

The government is promoting manufacturing through initiatives such as the Make in India program. This is expected to boost exports and reduce India’s reliance on imports.

Reforming the labor market

The government is reforming the labor market to make it more flexible and business-friendly. This is expected to attract more investment and create jobs.

Additional Details

Here are some additional details on the current economic state of affairs in India:


Agriculture is the backbone of the Indian economy, employing over half of the workforce and contributing about 18% to GDP. However, the sector is facing a number of challenges, including climate change, water scarcity, and fragmented landholdings.



Manufacturing accounts for about 18% of GDP and employs about 20% of the workforce. The government is promoting manufacturing through initiatives such as the Make in India program. However, the sector is facing challenges such as high input costs and infrastructure bottlenecks.


The services sector is the largest sector in the Indian economy, accounting for over 50% of GDP and employing about 70% of the workforce. The sector is growing rapidly, driven by growth in IT, financial services, and tourism.


The Indian economy is currently in a state of flux, with several positive and negative factors at play. The government is taking a number of steps to address the challenges facing the economy, but it remains to be seen whether these steps will be successful. The outlook for the Indian economy in the coming years will depend on a number of factors, including the global economic environment, the government’s ability to implement its policies, and the resilience of the Indian people.

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